Seizure due to CNS oxygen toxicity in divers breathing a hyperoxic gas mix underwater is very likely to cause drowning. Some anecdotal reports indicate that CNS oxygen toxicity may be more common during night activities. A research team from Israel Naval Medical Institute in Haifa, studied the effects of night activities and melatonin on possible modification of susceptibility to oxygen toxicity in rats.
Melatonin is widely present in animal and plant species, however its physiological function differs depending on the organism. In animals, it is produced by the pineal gland and is associated with regulation of diurnal (circadian) rhythm. With the onset of darkness, the pineal gland begins secreting melatonin reaching maximum production in the early morning hours and stops with the onset of daylight. Melatonin promotes sleepiness and contributes to a healthy and restorative sleep. It also contributes to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory processes.
In this study, rats were exposed to 12 hours of light/dark cycles to affect melatonin production over a three week period. The control and experimental groups were kept awake during the day and night, respectively. At the end of this period melatonin level in the blood was measured. Each group was divided into two subgroups, one receiving supplemental melatonin and the other a placebo before exposure to 5 ATA oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber. The time to onset of convulsions was measured. In addition, researchers measured the levels of enzymes affecting reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.
Oxygen convulsions occurred much faster in animals active at night. The rapid onset of convulsions was associated with a reduced level of melatonin. However, provision of external supplemental melatonin did not affect resistance to oxygen toxicity. The effects of external melatonin on the level of antioxidant enzymes varied. Oxygen reactive species were more affected than nitrogen reactive species.
The most important finding of this study was that night activity represented an additional risk factor for the development of CNS oxygen toxicity in rats. This was likely caused by changes in diurnal rhythm which could not be compensated by administration of external melatonin.
For divers this raises the question of whether diving at night increases the risk of oxygen toxicity as well. Although taking melatonin before a night dive may not provide any preventative benefits or protection against CNS oxygen toxicity, it can be beneficial in other ways. Melatonin may help with jetlag by supporting a healthy sleep cycle and by re-setting the body’s sleep-wake phases.
Eynan M, Biram A, Mullokandov M, Arieli Y. Susceptibility to CNS oxygen toxicity following a switch from day to night activity is associated with changes in melatonin and antioxidant enzyme activity. Oral presentation, EUBS 2015, Amsterdam.